In collaboration with Yuqiao and Jixuan, we brainstormed a lot and finally decided to do something for children of rural area in China.
According to China Government Report, until 2015, migration workers population reached 277 millions.
Overall, the Chinese government has tacitly supported migration as means of providing labour for factories and construction sites and for the long-term goals of transforming China from a rural-based economy to an urban-based one. Some inland cities have started providing migrants with social security, including pensions and other insurance. In 2012, there were a reported 167 million migrant workers in China, with trends of working closer to home (within their own or a neighbouring province but with a wage drop of 21%. Because so many migrant works are moving to the city from rural areas, employers can hire them to work in poor working conditions for extremely low wages. Migrant workers in China are notoriously marginalized, especially due to the hukou system of residency permits, which tie one stated residence to all social welfare benefits.
source : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Migrant_worker#China
more resource: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Migration_in_China
Who is this for?
Children affected by migration
- left-behind children
Left-behind children in China refer to the children who live with one parent (usual mother) or extended family (usually grandparents) when their parent(s) is (are) absent from home as migrant workers in urban areas. They are left behind partly because of little access to basic welfare in cities without local hukou status and partly because of high living expenses in cities.According to Ministry of Education, in 2012 there were more than 12.6 million migrant children and 58 million left-behind children from 7 years old to 16 years old. Left-behind children will have more health, emotional and behavior issues than those who grow up with their parents.
A short video by BBC gives a brief introduction to the left-behind: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-china-35994481
A more detailed report from BBC:
2.children migrate with parents
Until 2015, held a population of 14 million. They migrated to the urban area with parents who usually worked at factories or construction sites with a limited access to education.
What is the challenge you are trying to investigate?
1.lack of care from parents
Most of migrant workers only go back and visit their children once a year. Some of the left-behind live alone, others are raised by their grandparents. With limited access to internet, children could hard reach their parents when they are not together.
After they went to the urban area, many of them worked part-time in order to afford a normal academic life and get used to city life. Most of them relied on student loan to pay for tuition fee(which means they need to get a work after graduation in order to repay)
3. access to information
Limited resource at childhood – local teacher and support teacher from developed area
4. social/family/peer pressure after they went to urban area
Questions…: Do they want to go back? Why not? Their families’ attitude towards migrating issue and further education?
children migrate with parents
- limited access to education
9-year-compulsory education which supported by Chinese government funds could only be implemented at the local area, which means they need to pay for tuition fee at urban area. There are primary schools specifically for these kids（mostly in rural-urban fringe zone） while still cannot solve the problem due to their flowing issues, ID issues.
2. transfer frequently
3. Ignorance from parents
40% of parents donot care about children education
4.social/family/peer pressure mental issues